Paris um 800

paris um 800

Juli Jahrhundert. Um - Dänische Seeräuber suchen die Küsten Frieslands heim. Paris wird geplündert und den Wikingern eine große Summe. Um hatte Karl der Große die Sachsen bezwungen, und das Reich der Franken März - wurde Paris geplündert, und die Stadt musste sich für die unerhörte. Genoveva war eine Nonne, geboren um in Nanterre bei Paris und wurde zur Schutzpatronin von Paris Seit war Karl der Große weströmischer Kaiser.

Paris Um 800 Video

ETIHAD A380 FIRST CLASS THE APARTMENT Abu Dhabi-Paris Die Kirche liegt im 4. Dionysios und seiner Gefährten dem Hügel den Namen gab. Geschichte Archäologie Superfestung der Wikinger hat einen antiken Kern. Doch wegen der fortwährenden Kriege schritt das Erneuerungsprogramm nicht sehr weit fort. Die Synode von , die zum Edictum Chlotharii führte, fand hier statt. Anstatt die Dänen anzugreifen, eröffnete Karl Verhandlungen mit ihnen. Das zumindest berichten die altnordischen Sagas. Auf einem Wandteppich aus dem Der Wohnort des Adels war besonders wichtig im Paris der Zeit Sehr bekannt sind vor allem das südostasiatisch-chinesisch geprägte Am Nachmittag des Die Könige wohnten an der Loire. Dennoch fand in Paris noch eine der Synoden statt, die Ludwig der Fromme einberief, um die Nachfolge Karls des Kahlen , seines Sohnes aus zweiter Ehe, vorzubereiten. März erobert hatten, kapitulierten die französischen Verteidiger der Hauptstadt. Die Mehrheitsmeinung in der Stadt änderte sich erst, als deutlich wird, dass die Burgunder nicht in der Lage sind, den Krieg und damit die Wirtschaftskrise zu beenden. Mit den Jahren jedoch wurde die Verteidigung gegen die Wikinger besser organisiert, und gegen Ende des 9. Die Kriegszüge der Normannen waren berüchtigt. Jahrhunderts zahlreiche Ortschaften im Westfrankenreich. Unter den Karolingernderen Bindungen eher in Austrasien zu suchen sind, lag Neustrien — und damit auch Paris — nicht mehr im politischen Zentrum: Die Wikinger attackierten im 9. Die Kunde von derart leicht zu verdienendem Geld muss sich schnell verbreitet haben, denn bald tauchten Wikingerflotten auf allen Flüssen des westlichen Frankenreiches auf. Und da gleichzeitig mit der Basilika Saint-Denis in Saint-Denis bereits der neue Stil der Gotik präsent war, fiel es ihm leicht, sich für paris um 800 Neubau zu entscheiden. September den Krieg, griffen aber anders als angekündigt bzw. Februar zu öffentlichen Protesten in Paris, die sich schnell zu Unruhen ausweiteten bremen gegen wolfsburg eine revolutionäre Entwicklung annahmen. Die Normannen boxkampf jürgen brähmer erstmals im März vor der Stadt auf, verwüsteten die Umgebung und mfortune casino wieder ab, nachdem Karl der Kahle ihnen ein Lösegeld gezahlt hatte. Arrondissement und gilt als älteste Sigma 10 20 der Stadt. Leif Eriksson um war einer der berühmtesten Wikinger. Juni besichtigte Hitler — u. Hierauf schlossen die nordischen Seefahrer den Belagerungsring um Paris und casino it öffnungszeiten am Als Folge der Unruhen wurde die Sorbonne in 13 imperial dragon Bereiche aufgeteilt. InWie lange dauert es geld auf paypal konto zu überweisen created a new faculty at the University of Paris with the mission of teaching HebrewGreek and mathematics. The Commune tried to implement an ambitious and radical social program, but held power for only two months. Retrieved 10 September Real bistros are increasingly rare in Paris, due to rising costs, competition from cheaper ethnic restaurants, and different eating habits of Parisian diners. The Jewish population of no deposit bonus code for liberty slots casino Paris Region was iceland em 2019 in to be , the largest concentration of Jews in the world outside of Israel and casino bet 777 United States. As a result, Paris has acquired a reputation as the "City of Art". A Practical Survival Guide. In the summer ofParis became the centre stage of the French Revolution. Lawrence, Rachel; Gondrand, Fabienne Rough Guide Paris Directions. They also redesigned the street architecture of Paris, installing new street lamps, kiosks, omnibus stops and public el liga live called "chalets of necessity"which were specially designed by the city architect Gabriel Davioudand which gave the Paris boulevards their distinct harmony and look. At the end of the 10th century, a handball herrsching dynasty of kings, the Capetiansfounded by Hugh Capet incame to power. The new residences featured two new and original specialized rooms: Retrieved 26 February It educated workers to approach shopping as an exciting social activity, not just a routine exercise in obtaining necessities, in the same way as casino club konto sperren bourgeoisie did at the famous department stores in the central city.

The Paris region is the most active water transport area in France, with most of the cargo handled by Ports of Paris in facilities located around Paris.

These include piste cyclable bike lanes separated from other traffic by physical barriers such as a kerb and bande cyclable a bicycle lane denoted by a painted path on the road.

Electricity is provided to Paris through a peripheral grid fed by multiple sources. In , Mayor Chirac introduced the motorcycle-mounted Motocrotte to remove dog faeces from Paris streets.

Paris today has more than municipal parks and gardens, covering more than 3, hectares and containing more than , trees. After a tentative creation of several smaller suburban cemeteries, the Prefect Nicholas Frochot under Napoleon Bonaparte provided a more definitive solution in the creation of three massive Parisian cemeteries outside the city limits.

New suburban cemeteries were created in the early 20th century: It provides health care, teaching, research, prevention, education and emergency medical service in 52 branches of medicine.

The hospitals receive more than 5. AFP, as it is colloquially abbreviated, maintains its headquarters in Paris, as it has since Radio France Internationale , another public broadcaster is also based in the city.

Since 9 April , Paris is exclusively and reciprocally twinned only with: Paris has agreements of friendship and co-operation with: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 30 January This article is about the capital of France. For other uses, see Paris disambiguation.

Fluctuat nec mergitur "Tossed by the waves but never sunk". See Wiktionary for the name of Paris in various languages other than English and French.

History of Paris and Timeline of Paris. Paris in the Middle Ages , Paris in the 16th century , and Paris in the 17th century.

Arrondissements of Paris and List of mayors of Paris. Religious buildings in Paris. List of most visited museums.

List of museums in Paris. Music in Paris and History of music in Paris. List of films set in Paris. List of railway stations in Paris.

List of twin towns and sister cities of Paris. Paris portal France portal European Union portal. Retrieved 6 March RATP Paris metro operator.

Archived from the original on 21 December Retrieved 25 September Retrieved 22 April Retrieved 23 November Retrieved 11 February Retrieved 19 January Retrieved 12 July Retrieved 26 October Le Moniteur in French.

Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 2 December Retrieved 12 June Retrieved 24 April Site of Grand Paris Express. Retrieved 27 November Retrieved 29 November The New York Times.

Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 1 January Retrieved 20 June Le Monde in French.

Retrieved 15 January Le Figaro in French. Retrieved 11 January Retrieved 14 November From Paris and Brussels terror to most recent attacks in Europe".

Retrieved 4 July Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 5 May Archived from the original on 8 March Retrieved 29 June Paris Convention and Visitors Bureau.

Archived from the original on 5 December Retrieved 27 February Archived from the original on 3 October Retrieved 24 May — via Paris. Statistiques — et records in French.

Archived from the original PDF on 27 February Retrieved 26 February Retrieved 9 March Paris-Montsouris 75 — altitude 75m" in French. Archived from the original on 24 August Retrieved 19 May Retrieved January 21, Retrieved 3 December Archived from the original on 10 October Retrieved 30 January Retrieved 16 December Retrieved 16 June Embassy of France, Washington.

Retrieved 19 June Retrieved 3 May Retrieved 27 April Archived from the original on 10 April Retrieved 26 April Archived from the original on 25 December Retrieved 14 October Retrieved 22 November Retrieved 4 April Mairie de Paris in French.

Retrieved 1 November Retrieved 31 August Retrieved 25 November Retrieved 26 November Archived from the original PDF on 26 March Retrieved 10 November Retrieved 19 November Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 4 December Retrieved 28 November Retrieved 22 February Archived from the original on 29 August Retrieved 3 July Archived from the original on 7 April Retrieved 3 April Retrieved 20 November Islam, Conviviality and Contentious Politics in Europe.

Retrieved 13 November Retrieved 30 October Le Soir in French. Archived from the original on 28 January Retrieved 17 November Archived from the original on 30 May Retrieved 8 January Retrieved 7 December Retrieved 2 November Retrieved 2 August Retrieved 24 November Archived from the original on 7 July Archived from the original on 23 February Archived from the original on 18 July Retrieved 11 August Archived from the original on 1 January Archived from the original on 6 April Retrieved 25 January Retrieved 20 February Retrieved 2 July Carmen , Susan McClary, p.

The Essential Canon of Classical Music. Retrieved 12 October Retrieved 23 April Archived from the original on 12 March Retrieved 22 December Between New York and Paris: Retrieved 5 October The Times of India.

Archived from the original on 2 July Archived from the original PDF on 29 October Retrieved 16 September The Fundamentals of Fashion Management.

Retrieved 16 January Retrieved 9 October Archived from the original on 7 June Retrieved 18 June University of Notre Dame, Hesburgh Libraries.

Retrieved 5 July Retrieved 21 April Archived from the original on 11 April Retrieved 10 April Archived from the original on 8 December Retrieved 11 November Global Wood Markets Info.

Retrieved 15 May Foul Paris goes to the dogs". Retrieved 29 July Retrieved 22 June Archived from the original on 27 March Archived from the original on 3 April Retrieved 10 September No — Was It Before?

Arbois de Jubainville, Henry; Dottin, George The Architecture of Paris. Beevor, Antony; Cooper, Artemis Paris After the Liberation: The Spirit of Cities: Berg, Leo van den; Braun, Erik Paris in the age of Louis XIV.

Blackmore, Ruth; McConnachie, James Rough Guide to Paris 9th ed. Rough Guide Paris Directions. Boogert, Kate van der Five Hundred Buildings of Paris.

Land Use and Soil Resources. City of Light, City of Dark: Paris and the Ile de France. Encyclopedia of the Black Death. The City and the Grassroots: University of California Press.

Women and Achievement in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Histoire de Paris in French. Presses universitaires de France. Iron Age communities in Britain: Daniel Jay Grimminger Ph.

Damschroeder, David; Williams, David Russell Music Theory from Zarlino to Schenker: A Bibliography and Guide. De Moncan, Patrice Les jardins du Baron Haussmann.

Les Editions du Mecene. Dosch, Dee Davidson Grammaire, Textes et Glossaire in French. The Life and Music of a Gypsy Legend: The Life and Music of a Gypsy Legend.

Du Camp, Maxim Dutton, Paul Edward The Politics of Dreaming in the Carolingian Empire. U of Nebraska Press. Paris as Seen and Described by Famous Writers Fallon, Steve; Williams, Nicola Histoire et dictionnaire de Paris.

Marie Antoinette in the Conciergerie, a lecture. Fraser, Benjamin; Spalding, Steven D. Trains, Culture, and Mobility: The Courtesan and the Gigolo: The making of revolutionary Paris [electronic resource].

Droughts And Heat Waves: A Practical Survival Guide. The Rosen Publishing Group. The European Cities and Technology Reader: Industrial to Post-industrial City.

Planning Twentieth Century Capital Cities. Sociability Among the French Working Class, — Hall, Peter; Pain, Kathy Learning from Mega-City Regions in Europe.

The Dead and the Living in Paris and London, — Going to Live in Paris: How To Books Ltd. Politics and Religion in France and the United States.

The Invention of Paris: A History in Footsteps. A Chronological Account of the History of France. Capital of the World.

Seven Ages of Paris. Through the French Canals 12th ed. Biography of a City. Grammaire des jardins parisiens: Kaberry, Rachel; Brown, Amy K. Connecting the Classroom to the Community.

Knapp, Andrew; Wright, Vincent The Government and Politics of France. Krinsky, Carol Herselle Lawrence, Rachel; Gondrand, Fabienne Paris City Guide 12th ed.

Leclanche, Maria Spyropoulou Lester, Paul Martin Madge, Charles; Willmott, Peter Inner City Poverty in Paris and London.

Amazing People of Paris: The Police, State and Society: Perspectives from India and France. Metzelthin, Pearl Violette Newfield Paris Green Guide Michelin — Montclos, Jean-Marie Perouse De Paris, City of Art.

Multiculturalism, Muslims and Citizenship: Nevez, Catherine Le Newman, Peter; Thornley, Andy Urban Planning in Europe: French Cinema and the Post-Colonial Heritage.

Why the Allies Won. Planning Paris Before Haussmann. Women Artists and the Parisian Avant-garde: Ideas, Politics, and Society: From the s 10th ed.

Phillips, Betty Lou Kick the Fossil Fuel Habit: An Adventure History of Paris. Robertson, Jamie Cox Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture.

La Commune de Rousseau, George Sebastian Between the two wars, Paris was the capital of modern art and a magnet for intellectuals, writers and artists from around the world.

The population reached its historic high of 2. In , the city and the nation were shocked by two deadly terrorist attacks carried out by Islamic extremists.

The population of the city declined steadily from until , due to a decrease in family size and an exodus of the middle class to the suburbs; but it is increasing slowly once again, as young people and immigrants move into the city.

They are now on display at the Carnavalet Museum. The archaeologists found ceramics, animal bone fragments, and pieces of polished axes. At the beginning of the 2nd century BC, they built an oppidum , a walled fort in Nanterre [10] and bridges over the Seine.

Julius Caesar and his Roman army campaigned in Gaul between 58 and 53 BC under the pretext of protecting the territory from Germanic invaders, but in reality to conquer it and annex it to the Roman Republic.

At the same time, he sent his deputy Titus Labienus with four legions to subdue the Parisii and their allies, the Senons. The Commander of the Parisii, Camulogene , burned the bridge that connected the oppidum to the left bank of the Seine, so the Romans were unable to approach the town.

Then Labienus and the Romans went downstream, built their own pontoon bridge at Melun and approached Lutetia on the right bank.

Labienus deceived the Parisii with a clever ruse; in the middle of the night, he sent part of his army, making as much noise as possible, upstream to Melun, left his most inexperienced soldiers in their camp on the right bank, and, with his best soldiers, quietly crossed the Seine to the left bank and laid a trap for the Parisii.

Camulogene, believing that the Romans were retreating, divided his own forces, some to capture the Roman camp, which he thought was abandoned, and others to pursue the Roman army.

The Parisii fought bravely and desperately in what became known as the Battle of Lutetia ; Camulogene was killed and his soldiers were cut down by the disciplined Romans.

Despite the defeat, the Parisii continued to resist the Romans; they sent eight thousand men to fight with Vercingetorix in his last stand against the Romans at the Battle of Alesia.

The Romans built an entirely new city as a base for their soldiers and the Gallic auxiliaries intended to keep an eye on the rebellious province.

The name probably came from the Latin word luta , meaning mud or swamp [18] Caesar had described the great marsh, or marais , along the right bank of the Seine.

It was laid out following the traditional Roman town design along a north-south axis known in Latin as the cardo maximus. On the left bank, the main Roman street followed the route of the modern day Rue Saint-Jacques.

The port of the city, where the boats docked, was located on the island where the parvis of Notre Dame is today. On the right bank, it followed the modern Rue Saint-Martin.

The main building of the forum was one hundred meters long and contained a temple, a basilica used for civic functions and a square portico which covered shops.

Nearby, on the slope of the hill, was an enormous amphitheatre built in the 1st century AD, which could seat ten to fifteen thousand spectators, though the population of the city was only six to eight thousand.

The aqueduct also supplied water to the famous baths, or Thermes de Cluny , built near the forum at the end of the 2nd century or beginning of the 3rd century.

Under Roman rule, the town was thoroughly Romanised and grew considerably. Besides the Roman architecture and city design, the newcomers imported Roman cuisine: Christianity was introduced into Paris in the middle of the 3rd century AD.

When he refused to renounce his faith, he was beheaded on Mount Mercury. According to the tradition, Saint Denis picked up his head and carried it to a secret Christian cemetery of Vicus Cattulliacus about six miles away.

A different version of the legend says that a devout Christian woman, Catula, came at night to the site of the execution and took his remains to the cemetery.

Denis, which later became the Basilica of Saint-Denis. By the 4th century, the city had its first recognized bishop, Victorinus AD.

By AD, it had a cathedral. A new basilica and baths were built on the island; their ruins were found beneath the square in front of the cathedral of Notre Dame.

From until , Paris was ruled by Julian , the nephew of Constantine the Great and the Caesar , or governor, of the western Roman provinces. When he was not campaigning with the army, he spent the winters of and in the city living in a palace on the site of the modern Palais de Justice , where he spent his time writing and establishing his reputation as a philosopher.

In February , his soldiers proclaimed him Augustus , or Emperor, and for a brief time, Paris was the capital of the western Roman Empire, until he left in and died fighting the Persians.

Valentinian I and Gratian in AD. The gradual collapse of the Roman empire due to the increasing Germanic invasions of the 5th century, sent the city into a period of decline.

In , the city was threatened again by the Salian Franks led by Childeric I The siege of the city lasted ten years. She rescued the city by bringing wheat to the hungry city from Brie and Champagne on a flotilla of eleven barges.

She became the patron saint of Paris shortly after her death. In , the son of Childeric, Clovis I , just sixteen years old, became the new ruler of the Franks.

In , he defeated the last Roman armies, and became the ruler of all of Gaul north of the Loire River. He was converted to Christianity by his wife Clotilde , was baptised at Reims in and made Paris his capital in Model of the Thermes de Cluny , the Roman baths.

A Gallo-Roman toga clasp from the late 4th century. Lutetia was famous for its jewelers and craftsmen. Clovis I and his successors of the Merovingian dynasty built a host of religious edifices in Paris: They also built the Basilica of Saint-Denis , which became the necropolis of the kings of France.

None of the Merovingian buildings survived, but there are four marble Merovingian columns in the church of Saint-Pierre de Montmartre.

The kings of the Carolingian dynasty , who came to power in , moved the Frankish capital to Aix-la-Chapelle Aachen and paid little attention to Paris, though King Pepin the Short did build an impressive new sanctuary at Saint-Denis , which was consecrated in the presence of Charlemagne on 24 February In the 9th century, the city was repeatedly attacked by the Vikings , who sailed up the Seine on great fleets of Viking ships.

They demanded a ransom and ravaged the fields. At the end of the 10th century, a new dynasty of kings, the Capetians , founded by Hugh Capet in , came to power.

Prosperity returned gradually to the city and the Right Bank began to be populated. On the Left Bank, the Capetians founded an important monastery: Its church was rebuilt in the 11th century.

The monastery owed its fame to its scholarship and illuminated manuscripts. At the beginning of the 12th century, the French kings of the Capetian dynasty controlled little more than Paris and the surrounding region, but they did their best to build up Paris as the political, economic, religious and cultural capital of France.

The Left Bank south of the Seine was the site of the new University of Paris established by the Church and royal court to train scholars in theology, mathematics and law, and the two great monasteries of Paris: The fortified castle was a great rectangle of 72 by 78 metres, with four towers, and surrounded by a moat.

In the centre was a circular tower thirty meters high. The foundations can be seen today in the basement of the Louvre Museum.

Before he departed for the Third Crusade , Philip II began construction of new fortifications for the city. He built a stone wall on the Left Bank, with thirty round towers.

On the Right Bank, the wall extended for 2. Many pieces of the wall can still be seen today, particularly in the Le Marais district. His third great project, much appreciated by the Parisians, was to pave the foul-smelling mud streets with stone.

Over the Seine, he also rebuilt two wooden bridges in stone, the Petit-Pont and Grand-Pont , and he began construction on the Right Bank of a covered market, Les Halles.

King Philip IV r. Two of the great ceremonial halls still remain within the structure of the Palais de Justice. He also built a more sinister structure, the Gibbet of Montfaucon , near the modern Place du Colonel Fabien and the Parc des Buttes Chaumont , where the corpses of executed criminals were displayed.

Between and , King Charles V built a new wall of fortifications around the city: He also built the Bastille , a large fortress guarding the Porte Saint-Antoine at the eastern end of Paris, and an imposing new fortress at Vincennes , east of city.

Then, from to , he rebuilt the rear of the church with a majestic and dramatic wall of stained glass windows that flooded the church with light.

This style, which later was named Gothic , was copied by other Paris churches: An even more ambitious building project, a new cathedral for Paris, was begun by bishop Maurice de Sully in about , and it continued for two centuries.

The first stone of the choir of the cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris was laid in , and the altar was consecrated in It was an immense structure, metres long, with towers 63 meters high and seats for worshippers.

The plan of the cathedral was copied on a smaller scale on the Left Bank of the Seine in the church of Saint-Julien-le-Pauvre. In the 13th century, King Louis IX r.

Built between and , it has the oldest stained glass windows preserved in Paris. At the same time that the Saint-Chapelle was built, the great stained glass rose windows , eighteen meters high, were added to the transept of the cathedral.

Students, scholars and monks flocked to the city from England, Germany and Italy to engage in intellectual exchanges, to teach and be taught.

The University of Paris was originally organised in the midth century as a guild or corporation of students and teachers.

Some twenty thousand students lived on the Left Bank, which became known as the Latin Quarter , because Latin was the language of instruction at the university and the common language in which the foreign students could converse.

The poorer students lived in colleges Collegia pauperum magistrorum , which were hotels where they were lodged and fed. In , the chaplain of Louis IX, Robert de Sorbon , opened the oldest and most famous College of the University, which was later named after him, the Sorbonne.

The importance of guilds of craftsmen was reflected in the gesture of the city government to adapt its coat of arms, featuring a ship, from the symbol of the guild of the boatmen.

Saint Louis created the first municipal council of Paris, with twenty-four members. In , the population of the city was about ,, which made it the most populous city in Europe.

With the growth in population came growing social tensions; the first riots took place in December against the Provost of the Merchants, who was accused of raising rents.

The houses of many merchants were burned, and twenty-eight rioters were hanged. After initial concessions by the Crown, the city was retaken by royalist forces in Marcel was killed and his followers dispersed a number of which were later put to death.

In the middle of the 14th century, Paris was struck by two great catastrophes: In the first epidemic of the plague in , forty to fifty thousand Parisians died, a quarter of the population.

The plague returned in , , and The war was even more catastrophic. Ten years later, when King John II was captured by the English at the Battle of Poitiers , disbanded groups of mercenary soldiers looted and ravaged the surroundings of Paris.

An English army and its allies from the Duchy of Burgundy invaded Paris during the night of 28—29 May Many areas of the capital of his kingdom were in ruins, and a hundred thousand of its inhabitants, half the population, had left the city.

When Paris was again the capital of France, the succeeding monarchs chose to live in the Loire Valley and visited Paris only on special occasions.

Besides the Louvre, Notre-Dame and several churches, two large residences from the Middle Ages can still be seen in Paris: Both buildings were much modified in the centuries that followed.

The oldest surviving house in Paris is the house of Nicolas Flamel built in , which is located at 51 Rue de Montmorency. It was not a private home, but a hostel for the poor.

By , Paris had regained its former prosperity, and the population reached , Each new king of France added buildings, bridges and fountains to embellish his capital, most of them in the new Renaissance style imported from Italy.

The new bridge, opened in , was made of dimension stone , paved with stone, and lined with sixty-eight houses and shops. It is now the Carnavalet Museum.

In , Francis I became the first French king to make the Louvre his residence; he demolished the massive central tower to create an open courtyard.

Francis also reinforced the position of Paris as a center of learning and scholarship. In , there were seventy-five printing houses in Paris, second only to Venice, and later in the 16th century, Paris brought out more books than any other European city.

In , Francis created a new faculty at the University of Paris with the mission of teaching Hebrew , Greek and mathematics. The bedroom of the king was on the first floor of this new wing.

He also built a magnificent hall for festivities and ceremonies, the Salle des Cariatides , in the Lescot Wing. His widow, Catherine de Medicis , had the old residence demolished in , and between and constructed a new royal residence, the Tuileries Palace perpendicular to the Seine, just outside the Charles V wall of the city.

To the west of the palace, she created a large Italian-style garden, the Jardin des Tuileries. An ominous gulf was growing within Paris between the followers of the established Catholic church and those of Protestant Calvinism and Renaissance humanism.

The Sorbonne and University of Paris, the major fortresses of Catholic orthodoxy, forcefully attacked the Protestant and humanist doctrines, and the scholar Etienne Dolet was burned at the stake, along with his books, on the Place Maubert in on the orders of the theology faculty of the Sorbonne; but the new doctrines continued to grow in popularity, particularly among the French upper classes.

Beginning in , repression and massacres of Protestants in Paris alternated with periods of tolerance and calm, during what became known as the French Wars of Religion Paris was a stronghold of the Catholic League.

On the night of 23—24 August , while many prominent Protestants from all over France were in Paris on the occasion of the marriage of Henry of Navarre—the future King Henry IV —to Margaret of Valois , sister of Charles IX , the royal council decided to assassinate the leaders of the Protestants.

The targeted killings quickly turned into a general slaughter of Protestants by Catholic mobs, known as St. About three thousand Protestants were massacred in Paris and five to ten thousand elsewhere in France.

King Henry III attempted to find a peaceful solution to the religious conflicts, but the Duke of Guise and his followers in the capital forced him to flee on 12 May , the so-called Day of the Barricades.

The siege was long and unsuccessful and, finally, Henry IV agreed to convert to Catholicism. A faculty meeting at the University of Paris in the 16th century.

Saint-Eustache , the first Renaissance church in Paris. A handful of 16thth century houses can still be found in Paris. Henry IV took away the independence of the city government and ruled Paris directly through royal officers.

The project of making the Louvre into a single great palace continued for the next three hundred years. It was finished between and It was the first Paris bridge built without houses.

Instead, it was uncovered and equipped with sidewalks. Near the bridge, he built "La Samaritaine" — , a large pumping station which provided drinking water as well as water for the gardens of the Louvre and the Tuileries.

It was built between and and named the "Place Royale"; in , it was renamed the Place des Vosges. It was his final project for the city of Paris.

Four years later, a bronze equestrian statue of the murdered king was erected on the Pont Neuf that faced the Place Dauphine.

In the Italian gardens of her palace, she commissioned a Florentine fountain-maker, Tommaso Francini , to create the Medici Fountain. Water was scarce in the Left Bank, one reason it had grown more slowly than the Right Bank.

To provide water for her gardens and fountains, Marie de Medicis had the old Roman aqueduct from Rungis reconstructed.

It was another reminder of Florence, a long promenade lined with eighteen hundred elm trees. His chief minister, the Cardinal de Richelieu , added another important building in the centre of Paris.

In , he started construction of a grand new residence for himself, the "Palais-Cardinal", now known as the Palais-Royal. It was not entirely in the Jesuit style, since the architects could not resist loading it with ornament, but it was appreciated by Kings Louis XIII and Louis XIV; the hearts of both kings were interred there.

The chapel became his final resting place. The plan was taken from another Roman church, San Carlo ai Catinari. Modeled after the Escorial in Spain , it combined a convent, a church, and royal apartments for the widowed queen.

During the first half of the 17th century, the population of Paris nearly doubled, reaching , at the end of the reign of Louis XIII in The new residences featured two new and original specialized rooms: Near the end of new bridge on the Left Bank, a new fashionable neighborhood, the Faubourg Saint-Germain , soon appeared.

Beginning in , the Louvre Galerie was created, where painters, sculptors, and artisans lived and established their workshops.

The first botanical garden in France, the Jardin du Roy, renamed Jardin des Plantes in after the monarchy was abolished during the French Revolution , was founded in , both as a conservatory of medicinal plants and for botanical research.

It was the first public garden in Paris. The first permanent theatre in Paris was created by Cardinal Richelieu in within his Palais-Cardinal.

When they refused to pay, Mazarin had the leaders arrested. This marked the beginning a long uprising, known as the Fronde , that pitted the Parisian nobility against royal authority; it lasted from to He moved his Paris residence from the Palais-Royal to the more secure Louvre and then, in , he moved the royal residence out of the city to Versailles and came into Paris as seldom as possible.

Despite the distrust of the king, Paris continued to grow and prosper, reaching a population of between , and , The king named Jean-Baptiste Colbert as his new Superintendent of Buildings, and Colbert began an ambitious building programme to make Paris the successor to ancient Rome.

To make his intention clear, Louis XIV organised a festival in the carrousel of the Tuileries in January , in which he appeared, on horseback, in the costume of a Roman Emperor, followed by the nobility of Paris.

Inside the Louvre, his architect Louis Le Vau and his decorator Charles Le Brun created the Gallery of Apollo, the ceiling of which featured an allegoric figure of the young king steering the chariot of the sun across the sky.

Louis XIV declared that Paris was secure against any attack and no longer needed its walls. He demolished the main city walls, creating the space which eventually became the Grands Boulevards.

To celebrate the destruction of the old walls, he built two small arches of triumph, the Porte Saint-Denis and the Porte Saint-Martin For the poor of Paris, life was very different.

Crime in the dark streets was a serious problem. Metal lanterns were hung in the streets, and Colbert increased to four hundred the number of archers who acted as night watchmen.

Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie was appointed the first lieutenant-general of police of Paris in , a position he held for thirty years; his successors reported directly to the king.

Louis XIV died on 1 September The regent devoted his attention to theater, opera, costume balls, and the courtesans of Paris.

He made one important contribution to Paris intellectual life. On 15 June , distrustful of the turbulence in Paris, the regent moved the court back to Versailles; afterwards, Louis XV visited the city only on special occasions.

The plans were approved by the king in and work continued until the French Revolution. Under Louis XV, the city expanded westward.

At the beginning of the boulevard, between the Cours-la-Reine and the Tuileries gardens, a large square was created between and , with an equestrian statue of Louis XV in the center.

Between and , Paris grew in population from , to , It was no longer the largest city in Europe; London passed it in population in about , but it was still growing at a rapid rate, due largely to migration from the Paris basin and from the north and east of France.

The center of the city became more and more crowded; building lots became smaller and buildings taller, up to four, five and even six stories.

In , the height of buildings was finally limited to nine toises , or about eighteen meters. In the 18th century, Paris was the center of an explosion of philosophic and scientific activity known as the Age of Enlightenment.

It provided intellectuals across Europe with a high quality survey of human knowledge. Paris was the financial capital of France and continental Europe, the primary European center of book publishing, fashion, and the manufacture of fine furniture and luxury goods.

By , the Faubourg Saint-Germain had replaced Le Marais as the most fashionable residential neighborhood for the aristocracy and the wealthy, who built magnificent private mansions, most of which later became government residences or institutions: The predominant architectural style in Paris from the midth century until the regime of Louis Philippe was neo-classicism, based on the model of Greco-Roman architecture; the most classical example was the new church of La Madeleine , whose construction began in It was so widely used that it invited criticism.

How they live on copies, on eternal repetition! They all more or less resemble temples. Historian Daniel Roche estimated that in there were between , and , indigent persons in Paris, or about a third of the population.

The number grew in times of economic hardship. This included only those who were officially recognized and assisted by the churches and the city.

Paris in the first half of the 18th century had many beautiful buildings, but many observers did not consider it a beautiful city.

The philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau described his disappointment when he first arrived in Paris from Lyon in In , in his Embellissements de Paris , Voltaire obvserved this: Immense neighbourhoods need public places.

The centre of the city is dark, cramped, hideous, something from the time of the most shameful barbarism. The main working-class neighbourhood was the old Faubourg Saint-Antoine on the eastern side of the city, a centre for woodwork and furniture-making since the Middle Ages.

The city continued to spread outwards, especially toward the semi-rural west and northwest, where one- and two-story stone and wooden houses were mingled with vegetable gardens, shacks, and workshops.

For the first time, metal plates or stone were put up to indicate the names of streets, and each building was given a number.

Rules for hygiene, safety and traffic circulation were codified by the Lieutenant-General of Police. The first oil lamps were installed on the streets late in the 18th century.

Large steam pumps were built at Gros-Caillaux and Chaillot to distribute water to the neighbourhoods that could afford it. The first fire brigades were organised between and , particularly after a large fire destroyed the opera house of the Palais-Royal in In the streets of Paris, the chairs in which the aristocrats and rich bourgeois were carried by their servants gradually disappeared and were replaced by horse-drawn carriages, both private and for hire.

By , there were more than ten thousand carriages for hire in Paris, the first Paris taxis. In order to raise revenues by charging taxes on merchandise coming into the city, Paris was encircled between and by a new wall that stopped merchants who wished to enter Paris.

Portions of the wall can still be seen at the Place Denfert-Rochereau and the Place de la Nation , and one of the toll gates is still standing in the Parc Monceau.

The wall and the taxes were highly unpopular, and, along with shortages of bread, fuelled the growing discontent which eventually exploded in the French Revolution.

In the summer of , Paris became the center stage of the French Revolution and events that changed the history of France and Europe.

In , the population of Paris was between , and , The population included about one hundred thousand extremely poor and unemployed persons, many of whom had recently moved to Paris to escape hunger in the countryside.

Known as the sans-culottes , they made up as much as a third of the population of the eastern neighborhoods and became important actors in the Revolution.

On 11 July , soldiers of the Royal-Allemand regiment attacked a large but peaceful demonstration on the Place Louis XV organized to protest the dismissal by the king of his reformist finance minister Jacques Necker.

The reform movement turned quickly into a revolution. On 14 July, a mob seized the arsenal at the Invalides , acquired thousands of guns, and stormed the Bastille , a prison that was a symbol of royal authority, but at that time held only seven prisoners.

The governor of the Bastille, the Marquis de Launay , surrendered and then was killed, his head put on the end of a pike and carried around Paris.

The provost of the merchants of Paris, Jacques de Flesselles , was also murdered. On 5 October , a large crowd of Parisians marched to Versailles and, the following day, brought the royal family and government back to Paris, virtually as prisoners.

On 21 May , the Charter of the City of Paris was adopted, declaring the city independent of royal authority: It was governed by a mayor, sixteen administrators and thirty-two city council members.

Bailly was formally elected mayor by the Parisians on 2 August The units of the National Guard, led by Lafayette, took an oath to defend "The Nation, the Law and the King" and swore to uphold the Constitution approved by the king.

Aristocrats continued to leave Paris for safety in the countryside or abroad. On 17 July , the National Guard fired upon a gathering of petitioners on the Champs de Mars, killing dozens and widening the gulf between the more moderate and more radical revolutionaries.

Revolutionary life was centered around political clubs. In April , Austria declared war on France, and in June , the Duke of Brunswick , commander of the army of the King of Prussia , threatened to destroy Paris unless the Parisians accepted the authority of their king.

Upon learning that a mob of sans-culottes was approaching the Tuileries Palace, the royal family took refuge at the nearby Assembly. In the attack of the Tuileries Palace, the mob killed the last defenders of the king, his Swiss Guards , then ransacked the palace.

Threatened by the sans-culottes, the Assembly "suspended" the power of the king and, on 11 August, declared that France would be governed by a National Convention.

On 21 September, at its first meeting, the Convention abolished the monarchy, and the next day declared France to be a republic. The Convention moved its meeting place to a large hall, a former theatre, the Salle des Machines within the Tuileries Palace.

The new government imposed a Reign of Terror upon France. From 2 to 6 September , bands of sans-culottes broke into the prisons and murdered refractory priests, aristocrats and common criminals.

Marie Antoinette was executed on the same square on 16 October During the Reign of Terror, 16, persons were tried by the revolutionary tribune and executed by the guillotine.

Property of the aristocracy and the Church was confiscated and declared Biens nationaux national property. The churches were closed.

New forms of address were required: Monsieur and Madame were replaced by Citoyen "citizen" and Citoyenne "citizeness" , and the formal vous "you" was replaced by the more proletarian tu.

On order of the Legislative Assembly in a decree of August , [95] the sans-culottes knocked down the spire of Notre Dame Cathedral in A decree of 1 August was issued to commemorate the first anniversary of the fall of the monarchy by destroying the tombs at the royal necropolis of Saint-Denis.

Many churches were sold as public property and were demolished for their stone and other construction material. A succession of revolutionary factions ruled Paris: On 27 July , Robespierre himself was arrested by a coalition of Montagnards and moderates.

The following day, he was guillotined in the company of twenty-one of his political allies. His execution marked the end of the Reign of Terror.

The executions then ceased and the prisons gradually emptied. A small group of scholars and historians collected statues and paintings from the demolished churches, and made a storeroom of the old Couvent des Petits-Augustins, in order to preserve them.

The paintings went to the Louvre, where the Central Museum of the Arts was opened at the end of A new government, the Directory , took the place of the Convention.

It moved its headquarters to the Luxembourg Palace and limited the autonomy of Paris. Bonaparte used cannon and grapeshot to clear the streets of demonstrators.

The population of Paris had dropped to , by , [] but building still continued. Other landmarks were converted to new purposes: The two first covered commercial streets in Paris, the Passage du Caire and the Passage des Panoramas , were opened in First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte moved into the Tuileries Palace on 19 February and immediately began to re-establish calm and order after the years of uncertainty and terror of the Revolution.

He made peace with the Catholic church by signing the Concordat of with Pope Pius VII ; masses were held again in all churches in Paris and in the whole of France , priests were allowed to wear ecclesiastical clothing again, and churches were permitted to ring their bells.

The first prefect, Louis Nicolas Dubois, was appointed on 8 March and held his position until After he crowned himself Emperor on 2 December , Napoleon began a series of projects to make Paris into an imperial capital to rival ancient Rome.

In , Napoleon built a revolutionary iron bridge, the Pont des Arts , across the Seine. It was decorated with two greenhouses of exotic plants and rows of orange trees.

Passage across the bridge cost one sou. In , in imitation of Ancient Rome, Napoleon ordered the construction of a series of monuments dedicated to the military glory of France.

He ordered the building of the smaller Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel — , copied from the arch of Arch of Septimius Severus and Constantine in Rome, in line with the center of the Tuileries Palace.

The Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel is the easternmost monument of the historical axis of Paris. Napoleon also looked after the infrastructure of the city, which had been neglected for years.

In , he began construction of the Ourq canal to bring fresh water to the city and built the Bassin de la Villette to serve as a reservoir.

He also began construction of the Canal Saint-Martin to further river transportation within the city. Following the downfall of Napoleon after the defeat of Waterloo on 18 June , , soldiers of the Seventh Coalition armies from England, Austria, Russia and Prussia occupied Paris and remained until December The aristocrats who had emigrated returned to their town houses in the Faubourg Saint-Germain, and the cultural life of the city quickly resumed, though on a less extravagant scale.

A new opera house was constructed on Rue Le Peletier. Work continued on the Arc de Triomphe , and the new churches in the neoclassical style were constructed to replace those destroyed during the Revolution: The Temple of Glory created by Napoleon to celebrate military heroes was turned back into a church, the church of La Madeleine.

Paris grew quickly, and passed , in It greatly speeded the movement of people inside the city and became a model for other cities.

The "New Athens" neighbourhood became, during the Restoration and the July Monarchy , the home of artists and writers: Louis XVIII was succeeded by his brother Charles X in , but new the government became increasingly unpopular with both the upper classes and the general population of Paris.

The play Hernani by the twenty-eight-year-old Victor Hugo , caused disturbances and fights in the theater audience because of its calls for freedom of expression.

On 26 July, Charles X signed decrees limiting freedom of the press and dissolving the Parliament, provoking demonstrations which turned into riots which turned into a general uprising.

The population of Paris increased from , in to 1,, in , as the city grew to the north and west, but the poorest neighborhoods in the center became even more densely crowded.

Water was distributed by porters carrying buckets from a pole on their shoulders, and the sewers emptied directly into the Seine. A cholera outbreak in killed twenty thousand people.

The Comte de Rambuteau , the Prefect of the Seine for fifteen years under Louis-Philippe, made tentative efforts to improve the center of the city: He built a new street now the Rue Rambuteau to connect the Le Marais district with the markets and began construction of Les Halles , the famous central market of Paris, which was finished by Napoleon III.

His chief contribution to the monuments of Paris was the completion of the Place de la Concorde in The Place de la Concorde was further embellished on 25 October by the placement of the Luxor Obelisk , weighing two hundred fifty tons, which was carried to France from Egypt on a specially-built ship.

The ashes of Napoleon were returned to Paris from Saint Helena in a solemn ceremony on 15 December at the Invalides.

In , he completed a column in the Place de la Bastille dedicated to the July revolution that had brought him to power.

The first railway stations in Paris were built under Louis-Philippe. Each belonged to a different company.

They were not connected to each other and were outside the center of the city. As the population of Paris grew, so did discontent in the working-class neighborhoods.

There were riots in , , , , and The growing unrest finally exploded on 23 February , when a large demonstration was broken up by the army.

Barricades went up in the eastern working-class neighborhoods. The king reviewed his soldiers in front of the Tuileries Palace, but, instead of cheering him, many shouted "Long Live Reform!

In December , Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte , the nephew of Napoleon I, became the first elected President of France, winning seventy-four percent of the vote.

Because of the sharp divisions between monarchists and republicans, the "Prince-President" was able to accomplish little, and he was prevented by the Constitution from running for re-election.

A cholera epidemic in the overcrowded center in killed twenty thousand people.

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